Water and Urbanism in the Indus Civilization of Pakistan and India
Jonathan Kenoyer 乔纳森·马克·基诺耶
University of Wisconsin, Madison 美国威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校
This presentation will focus on the important water management systems of the Indus Civilization and the legacy of this culture to later traditions in South Asia. The Indus Civilization of Pakistan and Western India has evidence for the earliest urban centers dating to between 2600-1900 BCE. All Indus cities and many of the smaller towns and villages were built near major rivers in order to have access to reliable sources of water for their large populations. Building cities near to rivers also required special measures to protect the cities from flooding, through the location of cities on higher ground and surrounding them with massive mud-brick walls to protect them from floods. In addition to river water, many cities and towns have evidence for wells lined with fired brick or stone. Some of the wells were associated with bathing platforms and latrines, with sewage disposal drains to take the waste water away from the houses and out of the settlement. The drains from individual households were connected with larger drains on the streets and eventually emptied out into the surrounding fields or plains. The major cities such as Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in Pakistan, and the cities of Dholavira and Rakhigarhi in India were well laid out with north-south and east-west streets, that also has major drains and sump pits for the channeling and disposal of sewage water. In most cities the drains were made with fired bricks, but in Dholavira they were made using locally abundant stone. Some cities like Dholavira and Lothal had special brick or stone lined reservoirs for collecting water from rivers during the rainy season. These reservoirs were necessary for providing water to the urban inhabitants throughout the year. The highly developed system of water management of the Indus cities set the foundation for later water management systems that continued to be practiced in cities of the Early Historical Period (600 BCE to 400 CE) such as at Taxila and Sringaverpura as well as in many other settlements throughout the Indus Valley, the Gangetic Plains and in Peninsular India.
Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, Professor in Anthropology, has been teaching archaeology and ancient technology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison since 1985. He has worked on excavations and ethnoarchaeological studies in both Pakistan and India since 1975. He has served as Field Director and Co-Director of the Harappa Archaeological Research Project since 1986. He has a special interest in ancient technologies and crafts, socio-economic and political organization as well as religion. These interests have led him to study a broad range of cultural periods in South Asia as well as other regions of the world, including China, Japan, Korea, Oman, and West Asia in general. His work has been featured in the National Geographic Magazine and Scientific American and on the website www.harappa.com. He is the author of numerous books and edited volumes on the archaeology of South Asia and the Indus civilization. He has published 4 monographs two edited volumes with more in process, over 62 influential journal articles, had over 79 articles appear in edited volumes, 12 encyclopedia entries and 19 book reviews on works relating to South Asian topics. He had helped curate major exhibitions on the Indus Civilization as well as textiles and experimental archaeological exhibits.